How to prevent canine leishmaniasis
Canine leishmaniasis or leishmania is a parastatic and endemic disease, that is, it occurs in localized areas of the Mediterranean, South America, West Africa, North Africa and Asia, mainly. The transmitting parasite of the disease is a diptera of a family of sandflies, whose size does not exceed three millimeters, and is characterized by going unnoticed. Accustomed to living in rural areas or parks, with significant levels of humidity. There is no definitive cure for the disease, only a treatment for life. So, prevention is the most recommended. If you want to know how to prevent canine leishmaniasis and keep your dog healthy, keep reading this article.
In many cases, infected dogs have no clinical symptoms because the disease can take years to develop. That is why calculating the exact percentage of infected cans is highly complicated. The most advisable thing is to take the dog to the veterinarian on a regular basis and perform specific tests once a year to detect whether or not there is the presence of canine leishmaniasis.
There are several methods of prevention to prevent our dog from contracting the disease. The first one is to try to avoid the phlebotomist bite as much as possible. For this, it is advisable to install mosquito nets, with a diameter considerably smaller than the size of the mosquito, in all windows or doors. Also, it is advisable to impregnate them with insecticides that contain permethrin or deltamethrin, substances that repel the phlebotomist and that can be found in products for domestic use.
It is important to note that, in this case, the use of essential oils will not prevent the entry of the mosquito and consequent sting. So that eliminates this possibility. The use of insecticides, either in spray or connected to electric current, has been shown to be much more effective.
Knowing that the phlebotomists transmitting the disease go out to bite during the night, it is advisable to avoid taking our dog for a walk in this time slot if we live in one of the risk areas, in order to avoid the bite. Also, if our dog's house is in the garden of our home or another outside, you should spray it, too, with insecticide.
The use of pipettes and repellent collars, although they do not prevent the sting of the mosquito to 100%, are essential to reduce the chances of our dog being infected.
- The collars have an efficiency of 95% and accustom to last between three and four months. So, after this time, it must be changed to a new one. It is important that its components include deltamethrin or permethrin.
- As for the pipettes, they are less effective than the previous ones but they can also be a good option. After four weeks of application, the efficiency is reduced to 55%, so it is advisable to apply another pipette before reaching the fourth week.
Our dogs have an immune system that generates two types of immune responses, cellular and humoral. The humoral is responsible for eliminating all those parasites and bacteria that are outside the cells, while the cell attacks inside the cells. Leishmaniosis is one of the diseases that develop within cells, so we must reinforce the cellular response of our dog to ensure that it will generate the necessary antibodies.
Currently, there is a specific vaccine to prevent leishmania, whose function is none other than to strengthen the cellular immune response of our dog. During the first year of life of our dog, we will have to put three vaccines against canine leishmaniasis, with three weeks of margin between vaccine and vaccine. The veterinarian will determine when to apply the first one. As of the second year, the vaccine will be annual (one per year). It is important to follow the vaccination dates, if not, it will not be effective. Infected dogs can not be vaccinated.
There are several ways to prevent canine leishmaniasis but none of them is 100% effective, so you should complement them with periodic analysis by the veterinarian. In case of infection, detecting the disease in time can make the treatment ensure a better quality of life for your dog.